Estelle Massey Riddle Osborne

February 4

Nurses are a unique kind. They have this insatiable need to care for others, which is both their greatest strength and fatal flaw.

Jean Watson, American nurse theorist and nursing professor

Estelle’s life story was taken from her Find A Grave Memorial.

Photo taken from Find A Grave

Estelle Osborne, 80, Is Dead; Leader in Nursing Profession
Published: December 17, 1981
NY Times

Estelle M. Osborne, a leader in the nursing profession for many years, died last Saturday in Oakland, Calif., where she had been living in retirement. Mrs. Osborne, a former resident of Elmhurst, Queens, was 80 years old.

She had been an official of the National League for Nursing, a New York-based coalition seeking to improve education and services in nursing.

She had also been a director of the American Nurses’ Association, vice president of the National Council of Negro Women and a member of the New York Urban League’s advisory committee.

Mrs. Osborne, who had been an assistant professor at New York University’s School of Nursing, Held bachelor’s and master’s degrees from Teachers College, Columbia University.

She is survived by a sister, Mamie McGruder of Los Angeles.

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Health and Medicine Journals » ABNF Journal » Article details, “Great Black Nurses Series: Estelle Massey…”
Great Black Nurses Series: Estelle Massey Riddle Osborne
ABNF Journal
ACADEMIC JOURNAL ARTICLE
By Mosley, Marie O. Pitts
ABNF Journal , Vol. 13, No. 5

Estelle Massey Riddle Osborne (May 3, 1901- Dec. 12, 1981), African-American nurse, author, administrator, researcher, and consultant was a pioneer in organizational administration and a significant leader in struggles to eliminate discrimination in society as a whole and in the national professional nursing organizations in this country.

Mrs. Osborne’s fight to eliminate exclusionary practices for blacks in nursing occurred during the time when rigid patterns of segregation and discrimination in nursing education and employment for blacks existed across this country. Black codes limiting access to institutions of learning and job opportunities, designed to constrain and contain Blacks, were legislated and enforced by laws and customs in the North and in the South. Working tirelessly for forty-three years, Mrs. Osborne was steadfast in her efforts to ensure that future Black nurses would have the opportunity to be experientially and educationally prepared to assume higher positions in nursing and have the opportunity to do so.

Estelle Massey was born in Palestine Texas, the eighth of eleven children, to Hall and Bettye Estelle Massey. Hall was just a handyman and farmer and Betty Estelle a domestic, but they were the most progressive and intelligent parents in town, Black or White. Dogged determination to rise above social norms and expectations of Blacks was demonstrated in where and how they lived and the way they reared their children. Living in the heart of an impoverished region where many Blacks and Whites lacked decent housing for their children, Hall bought property at the edge of the White section of town and built a home for his family. The Massey family was a self-sufficient, self-contained unit. The males fed the family and earned money by raising and selling their own vegetables and livestock, and Mrs. Massey made the family’s clothing and earned money cleaning White people’s homes. Even though Mrs. Massey worked in the homes of Whites, she never allowed her daughters to do so. She knew firsthand that Whites felt that Blacks were inferior, and she never wanted her daughters to be exposed to this type of ignorant bigotry. Neither parent was educated, but they determined that their children would be. All of the Massey children received an education that included a minimum of two years of college – an oddity for this time and place.

After high school, following in two of her sibling’s footsteps, Mrs. Osborne enrolled in and graduated as a teacher from Prairie View State College, but after two years of teaching elementary school in a one room school house, she desired a change. One summer, during a visit with her brother Dr. Edward Massey, a dentist in St. Louis, and while working as his dental assistant, Mrs. Osborne confided in him her desire to follow in his footsteps and also become a dentist. Offering no specifics as to why she should not become a dentist, he strongly urged that she reconsider her another perspective career choice.

Dr. Massey determined to turn his sister’s thoughts elsewhere, made a plan and set it in motion. Edward, along with interns from the hospital next door to his house, throughout the summer, would fill Mrs. Osborne’s head with stories of nursing and the new nurses’ training school at their hospital. Daily bombardments from her brother and his friends led Mrs. Osborne to agree to go and talk to the training school’s superintendent.

A few days later, in a non-committed fashion, Mrs. Osborne half-heartily met with the school’s superintendent. Following their talk, Mrs. Osborne was invited to join the other students who had entered training weeks earlier. Despite all that was said to her at that first meeting, Mrs. Osborne was not prepared to commit. Two days later, however, to everyone’s surprise, Mrs. Osborne returned to the hospital and agreed to become a student at City Hospital No. 2’s first nursing class. Initially, Mrs. Osborne was not stimulated nor was she very happy with her training. …

March 20th, 2013
Estelle Massey Osborne: fighting racial discrimination

By Lillie Howard
Estelle Massey Osborne was born in Palestine, Texas on May 3rd, 1901. Her parents guided their 11 children to be strong, independent and confident. Besides being wonderful advocates for pursuing dreams, her parents were thoughtful and protective parents, so to avoid being exposed to racism, Estelle and her sisters were not allowed to work for white employers.

Estelle attended Prairie View State College, and became a nurse. Needing more education, she enrolled in Columbia University’s Teachers College in New York City.While there she taught at the Lincoln School for Nurses in the Bronx, and became the first nursing instructor at the Harlem Hospital School of Nursing. After earning her BA in 1931, Estelle became the first educational director of nursing at the Freedmen’s Hospital School of Nursing, which is now the Howard University College of Nursing.

In 1936, she again made history as the first African-American director of nursing at City Hospital #2 and later became the first black consultant to the National Nursing Council for War Service. After earning her master’s degree, Estelle became the first African-American member of the nursing facility at New York University in 1946. This led to a role on the board of directors of the American Nurses Assoc. and the position of Associate General Director of the National League for Nursing.

During World War II, while employed at the Nursing Council for War Service, Estelle was a part-time lecturer at New York University. In 1947, she joined the faculty on a full-time basis, teaching courses in community problems, group relations, fundamentals in nursing and other courses in the university’s Department of Nursing. Estelle proved that with the combination of higher education and the practical application of her nursing skills, she could break new barriers and create unlimited opportunities for herself and all other African-American nurses, and the effects of her actions are still serving us today. She is also credited with breaking the color bar in nursing during World War II, and contributing “substantially” to the “improved public image” and the advancement of educational and economic opportunity for Negro nurses. “…it is no exaggeration to say,” writes Edna Yost, that Negro nurses “have more opportunity today than they would have had without Estelle Massey, and so have Negro citizens throughout our population.” Estelle’s personal struggles for survival in this profession contributed substantially to improving economic and educational opportunities for Negro nurses.

To a member of a minority group, it is of supreme significance to become a “first,” and thereby open the door of opportunity to other members. Estelle opened many such doors for Negro nurses. The first scholarship award for advanced study by the Julius Rosenwald Fund to a Negro nurse went to Estelle Osborne in 1929. She was the first Negro superintendent of nurses and director of the Nursing School at the Homer G. Phillips Hospital in St. Louis; the first Negro nurse to receive the degree of Master of Arts with a major in nursing from Columbia University Teachers College. In 1949, when she was a member of the board of directors of the American Nurses Association, Estelle was sent to a meeting of the International Council of Nurses to be selected as an official delegate. When she was appointed consultant to the Coordinating Committee on Negro Nursing for the National Council for War Service, she became the first Negro to hold such an office on the staff of any national nursing organization.

Truthfully, there is so much more to learn about Estelle Massey Osborne but I don’t have the space to do so at this moment in time. “It takes a specific kind of person to be a nurse. It is a field that requires an elegant balance of intelligence and compassion, and the wisdom to know which is needed in each moment. Estelle Massey Osborne was dedicated to becoming the finest nurse she could possible be and was an advocate of greater opportunities for black nurses. Even then, she knew what is widely known today: higher education translates into increased opportunities.

Most of this information was found in “The Negro Heritage Library’s Profiles of Negro Womanhood” published by Educational Heritage, Inc.

Let me leave you with these words: education is the door that opens up opportunities, therefore we must make sure that our school system, Board of Education and parents are dedicated to our children no longer being allowed to be “drop-outs”. This will translate into increased and greater opportunities for them, which will only benefit our community. We must also get involved with our city government to ensure that there will be jobs for our children in their hometown once they acquire their education. This is Lillie’s Point of View!

Lathardus Goggins Ph.D., Ed.D, Ed.S (1927-2009)

February 3

To achieve greatness one should live as if they will never die.

Francois De La Rochefoucauld

I learned of Dr Lathardus Goggins while researching my family tree. He married one of my 2nd cousins 1x removed. As I added his leaf I stumbled across his impressive life story. It was a sad moment to learn he’d died. Yet, I found myself rejoicing he lived a fruitful and very rewarding life where he walked among giants. Below is his obituary:

Photo taken from Akron Beacon Journal/Ohio.com

After a year-long struggle with pancreatic cancer, Dr. Lathardus Goggins passed away peacefully in his sleep December 4, 2009 at 3:45 a.m.

Lathardus (Bop, Goggins, Pops, Daddy, Grandpa, Papa) was born December 29, 1927 in Anniston, Ala. to Douglas and Willice (Griffin) Goggins.

When Lathardus was four years old, his father moved the family from Alabama to Buffalo, N.Y., during the “great migration” from the south to the north. At the age of 17, he enlisted in the Army Air Corps (now the Air Force) and trained at Tuskegee during the end of World War II. He received an Honorable Discharge in 1949.

On August 26, 1951, he married Doris Corine Byrd in Buffalo, N.Y.

Lathardus attended Central State and Ohio State Universities, where he earned bachelor’s and master’s degrees, respectively. Lathardus returned to Buffalo, N.Y, taught Social Studies for Buffalo Public Schools, and pledged Phi Beta Sigma Fraternity, Inc.

Before joining The University of Akron in 1969, Lathardus taught in East Africa, where he was a member of the first wave of Teachers for East Africa (TEA), one of the first international initiatives of the Kennedy Administration that provided teachers for secondary schools and teacher training colleges in East Africa during the 1960s. Also, Lathardus taught at Florida A & M University, Grambling State University, University of New York at Plattsburg, and Brooklyn College.

On December 17, 1965 he married Ellen L. Osborne, while working in Grambling, La.

Dr. Goggins earned doctorates from St. John’s University in New York (Ph.D., History/African Studies) and The University of Akron (Ed.D., Higher Education Administration) and Education Specialist (Ed.S.) from Kent State University. He also earned multiple masters degrees from The University of Akron. At The University of Akron, he was a Professor of Geography and rose to become Associate Dean of the Graduate School. Additionally, Dr. Goggins was a visiting professor at the University of Warsaw in Poland and traveled extensively aboard: Senegal, Benin, Liberia, Nigeria, Ghana, Zaire, Ethiopia, Tanzania, Kenya, Uganda, Sudan, United Arab Emirates, Mexico, People’s Republic of China, India, Australia, Bulgaria, Poland, Germany, and Canada.

During his tenure, Dr. Goggins was a witness and responsible for many changes at the university that ultimately affected the city of Akron. Dr. Goggins developed the minority graduate recruitment initiative and recruited hundreds of students to the University. He was most proud of the 98 percent graduation rate from his program. In 1999, he was the first African-American to receive a UA rocking chair for 30 years of service. After 36 years of scholarship and service to The University of Akron, Dr Goggins retired in December 2005. In 2008, the Dr. Lathardus Goggins Endowed Scholarship was established.

Preceded in death by daughter, Denise Goggins; Lathardus Goggins leaves wife, Dr. Ellen O. Goggins; three children, Brenda Goggins Laster, Cheryl Goggins Barnes (Melton Sr.), and Dr. Lathardus Goggins II (Wanda); ten grandchildren; six great-grandchildren; seven siblings; and a host of nieces, nephews, special cousins and friends.

The family suggests in lieu of flowers donations may be made to the Dr. Lathardus Goggins Endowed Scholarship Fund. Envelopes will be available at the December 19, 11 a.m. memorial celebration at the Arlington Church of God, Akron, OH 44306 or donations may be mailed to: Dr. Lathardus Goggins Endowed Scholarship Fund, Department of Development, The University of Akron, Akron, OH 44325-2603

Isabella Baumfree: Sojourner Truth

February 1

“If the first woman God ever made was strong enough to turn the world upside down all alone, these women together ought to be able to turn it back, and get it right side up again! And now they is asking to do it, the men better let them.”

Sojourner Truth (1797-1883), 1860’s Hulton Archive/Getty Images

Isabella aka Sojourner Truth was born a slave 1797 in Swartekill, New York. She was the daughter of James and Elizabeth Baumfree. It appears Sojourner was a strong voice for women’s rights, an abolitionist and author. Years after the death of the only man she loved, she was forced to marry an older slave named Thomas, also owned by her master. To their union four of the five children born belonged to them as her daughter Diana was fathered by John Dumont. One of her greatest challenges was suing her youngest son’s master. Once she’d learned he’d sold her child to someone in Alabama she became concerned. The sale would prevent Peter from being freed under New York law once he turned 21 years old. It took faith in God and determination but she won her case. Peter was returned to New York and eventually given to her, as she was the only one that could claim him legally. Sojourner moved to Battle Creek, Michigan to be with at least one of her daughters. She died November 26, 1883 in Battle Creek, Michigan.

Prayer’s of Black Women

September 27

Let the words of my mouth and the meditation of my heart be acceptable in your sight, O Lord, my rock and my redeemer.

Psalm 19:14 ESV
Photo taken from: www.http://ebachan.com/

Sometimes people find their thoughts and words changing when facing difficult moments. It’s during those times words can become mean and nasty. And as a result people find themselves plotting how to protect themselves from evil with evil. Let’s just say that’s not good. I remembered a Gunsmoke episode about an evil town. What led to an old man saying, “evil eats itself up” was the most important message. And! It’s true! Evil always consumes evil. So never allow anyone to goat you into doing something mean and nasty that you’ll regret later. Let’s pray!

PRAYER:

Father God, ‘Let the words of my mouth and the meditation of my heart be acceptable in your sight, O Lord, my rock and my redeemer.’ Lord please become a visible rock during turbulent times and a redeemer when thoughts and words aren’t savory. Amen

Reflections of A Personal Representative

Day One

I am not going to be licked by tragedy, as life is a challenge, and we must carry on and work for the living as well as mourn for the dead.

Rose Kennedy
My mom Gloria Mae – Photographer: Unknown

Death couldn’t get any closer. The number of days were tallied for my beloved mom. She was 85 years old. I don’t know if my wish was selfish or not but, I her daughter wanted her to live beyond that number. If the Universe could have only given me one more year with her. But! Then I would want her to have another year after that. So, there was no winning with me for the Universe when it came to my mom dying. Because! I didn’t want her to die!

Love is a wonderful thing. And being my mom’s chosen and now court appointed personal representative robbed me of the rights to grieve her loss. Her death entered me into a battle when my thoughts were cloudy with grief.

People, oh the many of them, had planned my demise long before the “ole’ girl died.” And! After she died . . . They were hitting me from every imaginable and unimaginable angle! And should you become a personal representative the same could be awaiting for you! Especially if heirs are delusional to what they feel entitled. Therefore, don’t do crazy today. Do you!

Take a deep awaited sigh. Not a breath but a sigh. Put a photo of your loved one on your working station. Remember you were chosen because the deceased knew you could and would represent them well. Stand tall! And plant your thoughts in knowing everything you need is within you. And should you find yourself coming up short give the issues to your attorney.

I Truly Love and Enjoy My Non-Black Friends!

Wow!  April 14, 2013 @ 9:13 a.m., I wrote this 750 word blog post.  Today, May 8, 2020, seven years later, it is finally being published without concerns of being judged for grammar.  I’ve come full circle when believing I’m enough and I matter. 

ethnic young woman using laptop while having tasty beverage in modern street cafe
Photo by Andrea Piacquadio on Pexels.com

Laughter!  The other day before I published America New Frontier for African American Slave Descendants I called a White girl friend to get her opinion on what I wrote.  At first I could hear her looking through papers.  But desperate for input I continued to read her my post.  She became silent and the background noise stopped.   She was so quite I thought her cell phone had dropped the call.  So I asked, “Joyce are you still here?”  She responded with “Yes.”  I said, “Okay” and I continued reading.  After I finished reading the post I informed her I was done and awaited for her input.

This is what she had to say, “Hell girl Black women are not the only ones that need to hear this.  White women need encouragement too!  I think your post is great but you need to write to women in general.”  Inwardly, I thought “Okay!”  Did my friend miss the point!  Or did I miss the boat!  Laughter!

This is not a blog of segregation.  It’s a way for me to discuss and share my feelings as a Black women living in America.  I once wrote why I started blogging in my own name.  I never went into detail what I was researching when I discovered how people, groups, race and men felt about Black women being the lowest in lifeforms.   Each internet article, blog, YouTube video, and other social media kept hammering away at Black women and their characters; as if we have no feelings at all!  Yet, everyday somewhere in the world a Black woman is giving birth to another female that will be picked apart until Black women stand together and fight back by refuting ignorance concerning our gender group.

I personally feel these malicious rumors are spreed to keep women of color from advancing personally and professionally.  What am I saying?  I’m saying the world as a whole do not want Black women to raise up and be account for and keep their heads up in the process.  Why?  Because spiritual, emotionally, and mentally we are strong, and where there is strength there is power, and where there is power there is the possibility of becoming number one!  Think on it!  Black women haven’t done anything to the world to hate us, yet, we are the most picked upon and picked apart group of women.  As a matter of fact, I find the world has done its’ fair share in trying to diminish our gender group; its efforts hints extermination for Black women; and, again, we refuse with the aid of God to become extinct.  Hello!

I love being a Black woman.  To say I hate being a Black woman would be an insult to God.  What I hate is ignorance concerning women of color.  I hate we are by forced to coward down.  I hate that sometimes by choice we allow others to dictate our future as people, a gender group, motherhood, marital status, and part of a race.  Therefore, I will say it again.  I will keep saying it.  Black women have the rights to dream and dream big!  And they have the rights to pursue those dreams.  What bothers me is not the ignorant smudges on our character placed by uneducated people, but the fact Black women won’t come together on one accord for the good of our gender group.  I have experienced first hand being sold to the highest bidder by a sister of color.  Nothing hurt worse than knowing she sold me for a meager employment position.  As I stood realizing I had became the “Judas goat”  I gave her a glare only a woman of color understood.  From that day to this she can never speak to me in public or private settings.

So to all my non-Black friends and non-Black people this is not a blog to segregate.  It is a blog to encourage a group of women that is, and have been for a long time, under attack; so, please don’t take my words personal.  I am always there to encourage everyone!  But for the moment I am here to encourage Black women.  We need encouragement.   We need to know we matter.  We need to know that those we say horrible things about us are fools and foolish.  As a gender group we need to come together for the good of Black women and etc.

Their World Isn’t Mine

Harriet TubmanYesterday I was in a part of Denver I rarely pass through but my cousin wanted me to go with her to Downing Supermarket [that nasty place].
I’m not sure why my cousin won’t go to a meat market in our area and order smoke neck bones and frozen greens but she doesn’t.  I think she likes hanging out from time to time with the roughnecks of the world.  Not me.
 
Well, anywhohow, I was waiting at the meat counter with my cousin for her turn to be helped.  As I was standing there my nose was wrinkled at the unappealing meat in the display case.  It looked nothing like the meat I purchase at the local supermarkets nor at meat markets.  So, yes, inwardly I question it and its origin.  
 
Thinking to self I said “I wouldn’t purchase this meat.”  Well my thoughts weren’t savory.  Knowing me, I had a few cuss words somewhere in my mental thoughts.  But, don’t worry, I’m asking God to help me with my cussing.
Anywho, a pre-teen was bouncing around the customers.  Her parents said nothing to her about her early adolescence behavior.  So she moved from here to there and then she bounced herself face to face with me and we locked eyes.  Our encounter was brief but the eye to eye contact made her uneasy.  Unbeknown to me, she conveyed her feelings to her parents.   
 
So minutes later I walked back from an area closest to the meat counter and saw a sign about fresh eggs. I stood reading it.
 
When I turned back towards the meat counter the little girls dad said, “Hello.” I exchanged what I thought was pleasantries. Not! The next thing I knew the man says, “Why are you looking at my daughter.”
 
I was truly caught off guard. So I said, I wasn’t looking at your daughter, I was reading that sign but I can look at her if you want me too!”
 
I guess my response caught the young man off guard as his insulting question initially caught me off mine.
 
You could tell he wasn’t easy about me being around his daughter but his feeling were fuel by paranoia that is feed by the community within they live.  It was clear to see from my behavior his world wasn’t my world.  
 
Until now, I was oblivious to his world. I was passing through and had no plans of returning. So the people within it really never mattered.  I thought!  But!  God works in mysterious ways.
 
I praise God for keeping me safe because that young hotheaded gang member could have killed me. I praise Him for allowing me to see the need He has prepared me to assist Him in fulfilling. I praise Him for the avenues He’s going to open for me to help His people. I praise Him for just being God!  My Heavenly father and redeemer!  Amen!

It Takes All Kinds Of People to Make This A Beautiful World

diversityMost of you know that I enjoy couponing. I really enjoy giving to others. But for the past year what I have learned about me is that I HATE hypocrites!
 
I get all kinds of thoughts coming across my Facebook feed. Most of it is well wishing something personal, some of it deals with cruelty to animals, but the bulk of it deals with racism in America. Let me return to the subject of me couponing.
 
When I started my money-saving journey I never knew the doors of understanding that would open because of a paradigm change. In the last year I’ve lost friends for various reasons and most of those friends claim to be extremely religious or extremely knowledgeable about sex, race, religion, politics, and all other things that goes along with living life. And as I began to coupon I found myself in a spiritual place I didn’t even know exist and was able to read the hearts of those that claimed to love me.
 
I found myself caring less of what the world thinks of me as a black person. I found myself caring less of how people viewed my beloved car that is missing a quarter of its front bumper, a broken pulled down latched that was done by a Walmart worker. I found that my opinion mattered despite the rejections of others. I found I could validate another person’s opinion even though I didn’t agree with their belief.  I found myself feeling more put off by folks forcing themselves in my life in one form or another. I found myself being inspired by the single good-looking younger than me caring about morals successful business owner man down the street. I found myself reflecting upon my marital vows and how I treat the guy that goes to work everyday and misses sleep because he must get his load to the buyer on time.  I began to really put thought to how he gives me his paycheck each week (should he make a check) and questioned if I could do the same. I found myself wondering how I was going to pay back all the student loans my youngest took out in his name to attend college. And for you folks that feel my youngest should pay his student loans, close your pie holes! Please!

As my son’s parent it’s my job to see that he gets the best start in life. And! Since I made such a mess of my life by making poor decisions when I was young and netted nothing financially to aid my children when it came to helping them enter into the world as successful adults, then my son’s student loan repayments became mines because his entry into adulthood debt free is my job as his parent.

 
But the thing I’ve learned from couponing is that it takes all kinds of people to make this a beautiful world. 

Day Nine: Who Doesn’t Like Free Money?

I got these product for FREE!

Silly people don’t like free money!

Recently, I’ve been using coupons to buy items.  And since my money-saving announcement, I’ve gotten all kinds of flack from folks.  I’ve heard such things as “why would you do that” or “you’re wasting your time” and “I can’t stand people who use coupons.”

At first the unsupportive statements made me feel shameful and gave me a spirit to quit.  Then one day I went shopping in an all white community.  And as I was looking at a product trying to figure out if it would be worth purchasing then a man stopped in front of me.  He said, “Wow!  Look at your book!  I bet you are going to save a ton of money!  You are so organized!  I’m not even that organized!” [I wasn’t sure what to think about his last comment.  lol.]  But it was clear to see the white man approved of my strategy to save money by using the money hundreds of companies give to couponers.  Honestly, it was his comments and a few more comments from white people who made me realize coupons are FREE money.

Anywhohow, because I was willing to give L’Oreal products a try I got their shampoo and conditioner for free!  And it normally sells for 5 dollars and some change.

This is my friend Robin.  Her hair is so healthy!
This is my friend Robin. Her hair is so healthy!  And for a couple of months she washed and conditioned my damage hair.  She stopped the breakage and now my hair is filling in with healthier hair.  I’m glad she took the time to help me learn about hair, and especially about my hair.

Now mind you some black people might think only black hair care products are good for their hair; thus, making them loyal to products that state it’s for black hair only.  But it was a good friend that enlighten me to try hair-care products for non-black folks.  Her hair is her testimony!  It’s long!  It’s healthy!  And it looks really good!  And with the exception of hair relaxers for black folks she doesn’t use just black hair care products to keep her hair healthy.  And with her in mind I carefully selected products she states black hair need for continual growth.

So the shampoos and conditioners I selected are in the first photo of my post.  As you can see L’Oreal claims their product reinforces hair strands and nourishes the hair.

I’m excited to see how my new shampoos and conditioners work on my hair and look forwards to sharing the results with you.

Ooh!  And the money I saved can go towards paying an overdue bill.